Speakers Presentations

S P E A K E R S    P R E S E N T A T I O N S

1 TITLE: Victor Babes: from human to animals and back to humanity
AUTHORS: Prof. Marius RAICA, MD, PhD
AFFILIATE: "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania
2 TITLE: Cryptosporidium Infection in Animals and Humans: One Parasite – One Health
AUTHORS: Assoc. Prof. Olga Maria Guerreiro de MATOS, MD, PhD
AFFILIATE: Insituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical Lisbon, Portugal
Group of Opportunistic Protozoa/HIV and Other Protozoa, Unit of Medical Parasitology, Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Portugal.
Cryptosporidium species are ubiquitous apicomplexan parasites and important etiological agents of gastrointestinal disease. Cryptosporidium infection has several transmission routes, with diarrhea as the most frequent sign of disease. A wide range of animals and humans are infected, where immunocompromised individuals and the youngsters are the groups more susceptible to infection. Humans are mainly infected by two species,Cryptosporidium hominis (anthroponotic transmission and Cryptosporidium parvum (zoonotic or anthroponotic transmission), whereas cattle can be infected by several species of Cryptosporidium. In recent years, molecular tools have improved the knowledge about the epidemiology of these parasites. Some loci have revealed high degree of polymorphisms allowing us to characterize genetic diversity at subtype level, leading to a better understanding of the sources of infection, and the transmission dynamics in both humans and animals.
Cryptosporidium remain a public health problem and because of that it is essential to understand the intricate associations between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans to enable management of its zoonotic risk. Advances in the study of Cryptosporidium as “One parasite – One health” are only possible with a holistic approach and close collaboration among parasitologists, clinicians, epidemiologists, molecular biologists, and community social workers in well designed epidemiological studies.
3 TITLE: Zoonotic parasitic diseases in wild and domestic carnivores in Portugal - recent updates
AUTHORS: Assoc. Prof. Luis Manuel Madeira de CARVALHO, DVM, PhD
AFFILIATE: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon, Portugal
4 TITLE: The need of one health: the case of parasitic zoonoses
AFFILIATE: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Milan, Italy
From the ancient times, the history of human and animal parasitology was strictly interconnected and parasitic zoonoses were within the oldest known human diseases. Although most etiological agents were not identified, some religious precepts such as the prohibition to eat pork meat for Jewfishes and Muslims were probably as a consequence of the risk of parasitic infection such as Trichinella and Taenia. After the first scientific definition of “parasite” by Francesco Redi as „a living animal which can be found inside living animals” (Redi, 1684), the scientists who worked on parasitology throughout the 18th and 20th century were biologists, human doctors and veterinarians and the common aim was to prevent, to control and to fight against parasitic infections, no matter of the final host. An example was the discover by a veterinarian of the life cycle of Ancylostoma duodenalis, the causative agent of miner’s anaemia (Perroncito, 1885).
Wiliam Osler (1848-1919) was credited with coning the term „One Medicine” and Rudolf Virchow in his Handobuck der speziellen Pathologie und Therapie (Virchow, 1855), included the chapter „Infection caused by animals poisons” with the subtitle „zoonosen”. Furthermore, he stated that „between animal and human medicine there is a no dividing line, nor should there be. The object is different but the experience obtained constitutes the basis of all medicine”. More recently, Calvin Schwabe proposed an unified human and veterinary approach to zoonoses in the 1964 edition of his „Veterinary Medicine and Human Health” and subsequently he formalized the One Medicine concept in the third edition that appeared in 1984.
Currently, no doubt that humanity faces many challenges that require global solutions (One World, One Health). One of these challenges is the spread of infectious diseases that emerge (or re-emerge) from the interfaces between animals and humans and the ecosystems in which they live. For instance, the current global climate change can affect disease vector behaviour, which in turn may alter the current patterns of vector-borne diseases transmitted by the bite of haematophagous arthropods. Furthermore, many drivers such as trade as allowed the introduction of invasive arthropod vectors such as Aedes albopictus and Ae. koreicus and the animal movement and relocation have allowed the spreading of several infective agents from endemic in non-endemic countries and increased the risk of zoonoses.
5 TITLE: Global climatic change: Animal Health emerging zoonoses
AFFILIATE: National Veterinary School of Toulouse, France
In a relatively near future, global climatic change will induce an evolution of the epidemiological parameters of animal diseases and of course of zoonosis. The idea that weather and climate are linked to the incidence of infectious diseases has been recognized since the time of Hippocrates (Nat. Res. Counc. 2001). Consequently, it may be assumed: 1-an adaptation of strains of infectious disease agents (virus, bacteria, rickettsia, fungi, helminths), 2- a modification of the ecology of intermediate hosts and/or vectors, 3- a move of hosts and reservoirs according to climatic, ecosystem and biocenose changes. We clearly are in a period of emergent diseases induced by these new climatic parameters. Nevertheless, we don’t have enough clear scientific studies giving information about consequences on animal health and zoonosis. Impacts of climate change on human health have been extensively reviewed (Confalonieri et al. 2007; Ebi et al. 2006, 2008; Frumkin et al. 2008; Patz & Olson 2006).
Moreover, we have to be cautious about some conclusions relying on hypothesis based only on theoretical models. The existence of climate-related accidents requires adaptation of new schedules of preventive actions sustained by permanent monitoring of all epidemiological parameters. Laboratory diagnosis is more essential than ever to prevent, detect and manage emergent diseases and zoonosis.
Whatever its causes might be, the slow but steady temperature rise and changes in patterns of rainfall have to be incorporated in developing alert and response systems. The heat wave episodes do not indicate a sudden climate change but only interannual variation. According to meteorologists, the climate of a region at any given time in the evolution of our planet can be defined by the values of variables that characterize the weather over a thirty-year period of time. If some causes of variation are pointed i.e. greenhouse gases, industrial activities, transformation of spaces, landscapes or natural environments through human action… many other contributing factors remain to be identified, and their contribution weighed. In order to assess the impact of these climatic changes the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) indicates that their appreciation is only true for areas of 300 km and remains in the field of modelling depending on the ups and downs of events related to the earth system: atmosphere, ocean, melting of sea ice, vegetation etc (Somot 2005).
6 TITLE: Recent advances in our knowledge of vector-borne zoonoses in Hungary
AFFILIATE: Faculty of Veterinary Science "Szent István" University, Budapest, Hungary
7 TITLE: Western European ticks and their role as vectors of pathogens for animals
AFFILIATE: Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
8 TITLE: Complementary Therapies in Parasitic Zoonosis
AFFILIATE: "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania